Indirect evidence suggests that gum chewing may have greater metabolic effects than has been appreciated. The thermic effect of food is reduced when nutrition bypasses the mouth. In cows, chewing increases energy expenditure by approximately 20 percent. We measured how energy expenditure changes with gum chewing in humans.
James Levine, M.B., B.S., Ph.D.; Paulette Baukol, B.A.; Ioannis Pavlidis, Ph.D.